||Purpose / Corrective Measures
||Hardness and Alkalinity
||Water source(s) and water quality can change. Changes impact the control limits for controlling scale and corrosion in cooling systems.
||Unexpected makeup changes can result in scale deposits or corrosion in the cooling / condenser system
||Used to establish control range for maintaining desired cycles of concentration.
||Periodic checks of makeup water confirm the basis for establishing bleed control limits.
||Use silica if makeup chlorides are too low for accurate field measurement or to double check cycles based on conductivity.
These parameters are used to monitor
bleed requirements. If low, bleed should be
reduced. If high, bleed should be increased.
Note that increasing bleed will decrease the
chemical levels while decreasing the bleed
will increase the chemical levels.
Low levels (excessive bleed) wastes
water, and treatment chemicals, and
can cause corrosion. High levels
(inadequate bleed) can cause scale
deposits and excessive fouling. Scale
deposits can result in cooling system
If low, increase feed rate of inhibitor product.
If high, decrease feed rate. If phosphate
requirements increase significantly, check
for hard water.
Low inhibitor levels can allow scale
deposits and corrosion to occur. High
inhibitor levels wastes chemicals and
can result in phosphonate deposits.
Deposits and corrosion can result in
cooling system failure.
Regular testing to monitor the effectiveness
of the biocide program. High bacterial
counts: adjust biocide dosages and/or
frequency of biocide additions.
High bacterial counts and/or algae
accumulation can lead to fouling,
increased energy costs, and
High halogen residual: decrease feedrate
of halogen donor product. Low halogen
residual: increase feedrate of halogen donor
Low halogen level can lead to
excessive microbiological growth.
High halogen level can lead to
degradation of inhibitor and excessive
Maintain within recommended limits with
proper bleed (if not using acid) or pH control
(if using acid).
Low pH can cause corrosion and
iron deposits and result in equipment
failure. High pH can cause scaling in
heat transfer areas.|